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Table 2 Attributes and characterisations of frugal innovation

From: What is frugal innovation? Three defining criteria

Attribute categories (first-cycle coding) Attributes and characterisations of frugal innovations used in articlesa
Functional and focussed on essentials Bare essentials, core benefits, cut corners, taking exception to some of the requirements, de-featuring, eliminating unessential functions, entirely new applications, provide the essential functions people need, fulfil the requirements of awareness, fulfil the requirements of availability, good enough, light, limited features, new functionality, do not have sophisticated technological features, portability, reduced functionalities, reducing the complexity, tailor made, unnecessary frills stripped out
Considerably lower initial cost or purchase price Accessible, affordable, affordability, avoid needless costs in the first place, cheaper, cost discipline, cost effective, extreme cost advantage, fulfil the requirements of access, fulfil the requirements of affordability, low budget, low cost, low prices, low priced, minimising non-essential costs, minimum cost, more affordable prices, much lower price, reducing cost, trying to reduce the cost, significantly lower costs, ultra-low cost
Reducing the total cost of ownership Reducing the cost of ownership
Minimising the use of material and financial resources Avoiding obesity, draw sparingly on raw materials, economical means, economic use of resources, low input of resources, minimise the use of extensive resources, minimise the use of financial resources, minimise the use of material, reduces material use, reducing the use of scarce resources, resource-saving product
User-friendly and easy to use Easy to use, simple, simpler
Robust Durable, low maintenance, reliable, robust, robustness, stable, sturdy, tough
High value and quality Fulfilling or even exceeding certain pre-defined criteria of acceptable quality standards, good service, high-end technology, high value, leapfrog technology, maintain quality, maximising value, right value proposition, value for money, value products
Scalable and sales of large numbers Drive profits through volumes, highly scalable, mega-scale production, scalable
Sustainable Eco-friendly, ecological, little environmental intervention, low carbon footprint, meets green marketing objectives, service ecosystem, sustainability
  1. aPhrases in TableĀ 2 are directly quoted from the articles (see Table 3 in the Appendix). However, we adjusted them to British English